Leavening agent

Leavening means production or incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape, and texture. Leavening results in baked products with a larger volume with an open, porous texture. The three major leavening gases are air, steam, and carbon dioxide gas. Other leavening agents include ethanol and ammonia gas.

Leavening agent produce a gas which expands during baking, leaving small holes in the baked product resulting into lightens and softens the finished product.

The gases are distributed as small bubbles in batters and doughs, and the fineness of their dispersion is responsible for the grain of the baked products.

Leavened baked goods: are lighter in density and higher in volume than batter/dough.

Leavening agents help in aerating the batter by releasing carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is generated from the reaction of an acid with a base in the presence of heat and moisture. Although water vapor is important in leavening pastry, popovers, and cream puffs, it may be assisted by air, especially in pastry.

There are many different chemical leavening agents available to the baker. These include baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), ammonium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, baking powder (baking soda, calcium phosphate and sodium aluminum sulfate) and leavening acids.
Leavening agent

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