Food fortification

Food fortification is defined as the practice of deliberately increasing the content of essential micronutrients – that is to say, vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) – in a food so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and to provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health.

Fortification commonly uses staple foods as vehicles to deliver micronutrients generally lacking or not contained in sufficient concentration in the diet of a population. It has been implemented for a long period of time in industrialized countries to achieve the successful control of vitamin A and D deficiencies, several B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin), as well as iodine and iron.

Types of fortification
*Mass fortification
Mass fortification is the term used to describe the addition of micronutrients to foods commonly consumed by the general public (such as cereals and condiments), which is instigated, mandated and regulated by the government sector.
*Market-driven fortification
The term “market-driven fortification” is applied to situations whereby a food manufacturer takes a business-oriented initiative to add specific amounts of one or more micronutrients to processed foods.
*Household and community fortification

Food fortification includes biofortification, microbial biofortification and synthetic biology; commercial and industrial fortification, and home fortification.

The term biofortification refers to the increase of the micronutrient concentration in the edible part of the plant and can be achieved both by using fertilizers and by stimulating the absorption of these minerals in the plant.

Microbial biofortification involves using probiotic bacteria (mostly lactic acid bacteria), which ferment to produce β -carotene either in the foods we eat or directly in the human intestine.
Food fortification

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