Agricultural biotechnology

Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques used to improve plants, animals and microorganisms. Based on an understanding of DNA, scientists have developed solutions to increase agricultural productivity.

It represents a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterization and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes.

Biotechnology has been used to refer to a set of tools that uses living organisms (or parts of organisms) to make or modify a product, improve plants, trees or animals, or develop microorganisms for specific uses. It has been used to refer to many biological processes that produce useful products, including some quite ancient ones such as fermentation in beer, wine and cheese.

But most frequently today the term is used to refer to knowledge about the natural processes of DNA replication, breakage, ligation, and repair that has made possible a deeper understanding of the mechanics of cell biology and the hereditary process.

Biotechnology can be applied to all genus of organisms from viruses and bacteria to plants and animals and it is becoming a major feature of modern medicine, agriculture and industry. Biotechnologists believe that the biotechnology is like a miracle and could help us to achieve sustainability in agriculture. Biotechnology improves production, saves time and money and causes reduction in chemical application.

Agricultural biotechnology plays a crucial role in economic growth sustainability and economic competitiveness, especially in developing countries. In addition, biotechnology has a specific position in enhancing food security so that could be used as an advantage in sustainable agriculture for small farmers in developing countries.

The biotechnology tools that are important for agricultural biotechnology include:
*Genetic engineering
*Tissue culture
* Somatic hybridization
*Conventional plant breeding
*Molecular breeding or marker assisted selection
*Molecular Diagnostic Tools
Agricultural biotechnology

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