Nanobiotechnology: definition and applications

Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices derived from engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. Nanotechnology has opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creating new opportunities for advances in the fields of medicine, electronics, foods, and the environment.

The prefix “nano” derives from the Greek word for dwarf. The nanometer is one-billionth of a meter — much too small to see with the naked eye or even with a conventional light microscope.

Nanobiotechnology is considered to be the unique fusion of biotechnology and nanotechnology by which classical micro-technology can be merged to a molecular biological approach in real. Through this methodology, atomic or molecular grade machines can be made by mimicking or incorporating biological systems, or by building tiny tools to study or modulate diverse properties of a biological system on molecular basis.

On the other hand, biotechnology uses the knowledge and techniques of biology to manipulate molecular, genetic and cellular processes to develop products and services and is used in diverse fields from medicine to agriculture.

Nanoparticles formulations provide protection for agents susceptible to degradation, denaturation in regions of harsh pH, and also prolong the duration of exposure of a drug by increasing retention of the formulation through bioadhesion.

Application of biotechnology: medical applications (diagnosis, gene therapy, drug delivery), tissue engineering, pathogen detection, food safety, and biosurfactants.

Agricultural nanobiotechnology is a tool that can provide greater dividends for poor nations because it is powerful in ameliorating problems related to poor input use efficiency, water scarcity, poor sanitary conditions, and other similar problems experienced by poor nations. Nanobiotechnology will revolutionize agriculture and food industry by innovation new techniques such as: precision farming techniques, enhancing the ability of plants to absorb nutrients, more efficient and targeted use of inputs, disease detection and control diseases, withstand environmental pressures and effective systems for processing,

Nanobiotechnologists are hoping that nanobiotechnology will transform the entire food industry by bringing about changes in the production, processing, packaging, transportation and consumption of food. Usage of nanobiotechnology in these processes ensures safety of food products, creates a healthy food culture and enhances the nutritional quality of foods.Nanobiotechnology: definition and applications

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